“The 100-plus Study of Dutch cognitively healthy centenarians: rationale, design and cohort description”, Holstege et al 2018

BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, some individuals reach >100 years with fully retained cognitive abilities. To identify the characteristics associated with the escape or delay of cognitive decline, we initiated the 100-plus Study (www.100plus.nl). METHODS: The 100-plus Study is an on-going prospective cohort study of Dutch centenarians who self-reported to be cognitively healthy, and family members. We collect demographics, life-history, medical history, genealogy, neuropsychological data and blood samples. Centenarians are followed annually until death. PET-MRI scans and feces donation is optional. Almost 30% of the centenarians agreed to post-mortem brain donation. RESULTS: The first 300 centenarians (25% males) included in the cohort came from higher socio-economic classes and had higher levels of education compared to their birth-cohort; alcohol consumption of centenarians was similar, and most males smoked during their lifetime. At baseline, the centenarians had a median MMSE score of 25 points (IQR: 22.0-27.5); the large majority lived independently, retained hearing and vision abilities and was independently mobile. Mortality was associated with cognitive functioning: centenarians with a baseline MMSE score ?26 and <26 points had a mortality-rate of respectively 0.19 and 0.54 in the second year after baseline (p=0.003). The cohort was 2.1-fold enriched with the neuroprotective APOE-?2 allele relative to 60-80 year-old population controls (p=4.8x10-7), APOE-?3 was unchanged and APOE-?4 was 2.3-fold depleted (p=6.3x10-7). CONCLUSIONS: The 100-plus Study cohort represents cognitively healthy centenarians. Comprehensive characterization of this cohort might reveal protective factors that explain the pathophysiology of long-term preserved cognitive health.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/04/06/295287

About Robert Zinn

Robert Zinn, M.D., Ph.D. is a medical doctor, physician, and web entrepreneur, who, for over 15 years was employed by academic and research institutions and focused his clinical practices on very specialized patient populations, such as those with rare genetic diseases or rare cancers. He shares his knowledge through his website, NutritionTheory.org

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