Metformin reduces morphine tolerance by inhibiting microglial-mediated neuro-inflammation [through increasing AMPK phosphorylation] (2016)

Tolerance seriously impedes the application of morphine in clinical medicine. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the exact mechanisms and efficient treatment. Microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord are thought to play pivotal ...

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5114746/

About Robert Zinn

Robert Zinn, M.D., Ph.D. is a medical doctor, physician, and web entrepreneur, who, for over 15 years was employed by academic and research institutions and focused his clinical practices on very specialized patient populations, such as those with rare genetic diseases or rare cancers. He shares his knowledge through his website, NutritionTheory.org

View all posts by Robert Zinn →