Daytime and nighttime casein supplements similarly increase muscle size and strength in response to resistance training earlier in the day: a preliminary investigation

Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily. Isocaloric diets provided 1.8 g protein/kg body weight. Both groups increased (p < 0.05) in lean soft tissue (DT Pre: 58.3 ± 10.3 kg; DT Post: 61.1 ± 11.1 kg; NT Pre: 58.3 ± 8.6 kg; NT Post: 60.3 ± 8.2 kg), cross-sectional area (CSA, DT Pre: 3.4 ± 1.5 cm2; DT Post: 4.1 ± 1.7 cm2; NT Pre: 3.3 ± 1.6 cm2; NT Post: 3.7 ± 1.6 cm2) and strength in the leg press (DT Pre: 341 ± 87.3 kg; DT Post: 421.1 ± 94.0 kg; NT Pre: 450.0 ± 180.3 kg; NT Post: 533.9 ± 155.4 kg) and bench press (DT Pre: 89.0 ± 27.0 kg; DT Post: 101.0 ± 24.0 kg; NT Pre 100.8 ± 32.4 kg; NT Post: 109.1 ± 30.4 kg) with no difference between groups in any variable (p > 0.05). Both NT and DT protein consumption as part of a 24-h nutrition approach are effective for increasing strength and hypertrophy. The results support the strategy of achieving specific daily protein levels versus specific timing of protein ingestion for increasing muscle mass and performance. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03352583 .

https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0228-9

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Effect of Overnight Fasted Exercise on Weight Loss and Body Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [2017]

It remains unclear whether training in fasted compared to fed states leads to greater weight loss and whether this practice results in beneficial or detrimental changes in body composition. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effect of overnight-fasted versus fed exercise on weight loss and body composition. Seven electronic databases were searched using terms related to fasting and exercise. Inclusion criteria were: randomised and non-randomised comparative studies; published in English; included healthy adults; compared exercise following an overnight fast to exercise in a fed state; used a standardized pre-exercise meal for the fed condition; and measured body mass and/or body composition. A total of five studies were included involving 96 participants. Intra-group analysis for the effect of fasted and fed aerobic exercise revealed trivial to small effect sizes on body mass. The inter-group effect for the interventions on body mass was trivial. Intra-group effects were small for % body fat and trivial for lean mass in females, with trivial effects also found for the inter-groups analyses. Whilst this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate this topic, caution is warranted when interpreting the findings due to the limited number of studies and hence insufficient data.

http://www.mdpi.com/2411-5142/2/4/43/htm

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An Evidence-Based Approach for Choosing Post-exercise Recovery Techniques to Reduce Markers of Muscle Damage, Soreness, Fatigue, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Introduction: The aim of the present work was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the impact of recovery techniques on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), perceived fatigue, muscle damage and inflammatory markers after physical exercise. Method: Three databases including PubMed, Embase, and Web-of-Science were searched using the following terms: (?recovery? or ?active recovery? or ?cooling? or ?massage? or ?compression garment? or ?electrostimulation? or ?stretching? or ?immersion? or ?cryotherapy?) and (?DOMS? or ?perceived fatigue? or ?CK? or ?CRP? or ?IL-6?) and (?after exercise? or ?postexercise?) for randomized controlled trials, crossover trials, and repeated-measure studies. Overall, 107 studies were included. Results: Active recovery, massage, compression garments, immersion, contrast water therapy and cryotherapy induced a small to large decrease (-2.26 < g < -0.40) in the magnitude of DOMS, while there was no change for the other methods. Massage was found to be the most powerful technique for recovering from DOMS and fatigue. In terms of muscle damage and inflammatory markers, we observed an overall moderate decrease in creatine kinase [SMD (95% CI) = -0.37 (-0.58 to -0.16), I2 = 40.15%] and overall small decreases in interleukin-6 [SMD (95% CI) = -0.36 (-0.60 to -0.12), I2 = 0%] and C-reactive protein [SMD (95% CI) = -0.38 (-0.59 to -0.14), I2 = 39%]. The most powerful techniques for reducing inflammation were massage and cold exposure. Conclusion: Massage seems to be the most effective method for reducing DOMS and perceived fatigue. Perceived fatigue can be effectively managed using compression techniques, such as compression garments, massage or water immersion.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.00403/full

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